Manuscript: M313

PCM 1 21
PCM I 21
P. Heid. Inv. Kopt. 680
P. Baden 5 141
P. Bad. V 141

Text no. question mark icon Position of the text within the manuscript.1
Coptic Scriptorium:
Date: 951 – 1000

Text position:

Ro ll. 1-21

Type of text:

Unclear (magical, formulary)

Original title:
Original title (translated):
Conventional title: Invocation of image and characters


Egyptian (Coptic)


Sahidic with Middle Egyptian features




Text: Translation:

1. ⲁⲣ̣ⲣⲣϩϩϩ [kharaktēres: linear kufic]
2. [kharaktēres: linear kufic]
3. [kharaktēres: linear kufic]

[tableau 1]

Left of tableau:

4. ⲥϩⲏⲓ ⲡ̇-
5. ⲕⲱ̅ϩ ⲙ̇-
6. ⲉ ⲧⲉⲡ̇ⲧ̅ⲏ̅ ⲩ̅-
7. ⲁⲗ̅ⲓ̅ⲭ̅ ⲏ̅-
8. ⲁⲣ̅ⲭ̅ⲏ̅

Right of tableau:

9. ⲍ̅ⲱ̅ⲙ̅ⲓ̅ⲍ̅
10. ⲑ̅ⲩ̅ ⲗⲓ̈ⲃⲁ-
11. ⲛⲱⲥ

Below tableau:

12. ϯⲥⲟⲡⲥ · ⲁⲩⲱ ϯⲡⲁⲣⲁⲕⲁⲗⲓ ⲙ̇-
13. ⲙⲁⲕ ⲙⲡⲟⲟⲩ ⸗ ⲡϫⲁϫ ⸗
14. ⲛⲁⲗϭⲏⲛⲓ ⸗ ϯⲧⲉⲣⲕⲁ ⲙ̅ⲁ̅ⲕ̅
15. ⲉⲡⲟⲩϫⲁⲓ̈ ⲉⲛⲉⲕⲣⲁ̣ⲛ̣ ⲙ̇ⲛ ·
16. ⲛⲉⲕϭⲁⲙ ⲙ̇ⲛⲉⲕⲫⲩ̅ⲣ̅ⲓ̅ⲟ̅ⲛ̅
17. ⲙ̇ⲛ ⲛⲉⲕⲥ̅ⲱ̅ϯ̅ⲟ̅ⲩ̅ⲛ̅ ⸗ ⲙⲛ ⲛ̅ⲉⲧ-
18. ⲧⲱⲡⲟⲥ : ⲉⲡϣⲟⲟⲡ ⲉϩⲏⲧⲟ-
19. ⲩ : ⲙⲉ ⲧⲉⲧⲉⲧ̅ⲣ̅ⲓ̅ⲁ̅ⲥ̅ · ϫⲉⲕⲁⲥ
20. ⲕⲉϫⲱⲕ ⲛⲁ̣ⲓ ⲉⲃⲁⲗ ⲧⲁⲡ-
21. ⲡⲱⲗⲗⲁⲅⲓⲁ ⲉⲡⲁⲗⲁⲥ ⸗
22. ⲉϫⲉⲛ ⳽̅⳽̅ ⲙⲉⲛ ⳽̅⳽̅
23. ⲁ̅ⲓ̅ⲟ̅ ⲁ̅ⲓ̅ⲟ̅ ⲧ̅ⲁ̅ⲭ̅ⲏ ⲧⲁ̅ⲭ̅ⲏ̅ ⲷ

[1] ARRRHHH (kharaktēres: linear kufic) [2-3] (kharaktēres: linear kufic)

[tableau 1]

Left of tableau:

[4] Write ⟨on⟩ a [5] piece and the metal plate (?), [7] paper with [8] ⟨…⟩ of the first fruits.

[9] Zomiz

Right of tableau:

[10] Offering: [11] frankincense.

[12] I entreat and I invoke [13] you today, O leader of the djinn! [14] I adjure you [15] by the wellbeing of your names and [16] your powers and your phylacteries and [17] your images and the [18] places in which you dwell [19] and the Trinity, that [20] you complete the [21] request of my tongue [22] against NN and NN, [23] yea, yea, quickly, quickly!

Tracing by:Julia Schwarzer


1. ⲁⲣ̣ⲣⲣϩϩϩ rho corrected from pi
4. ⲥϩⲏⲓ i.e. Sahidic ⲥϩⲁⲓ
5. ⲡⲕⲱ̅ϩ i.e. Sahidic ⲉ-ⲡ-ⲕⲟⲟϩ : translate “jealousy” (“Eifersucht”) Bilabel/Grohann : translate “corner” ( “Zipfel”) Moßner/Nauerth : translate “top (i.e. the protective script)” Gardner
5-6. ⲙ̇ⲉⲧⲉ ⲡ̇ⲧ̅ⲏ̅ ⲩ̅- i.e. Sahidic ⲙⲛ̅ ⲧ-ⲃⲏⲧⲉ ? : ⲙ̇ⲉⲧⲉⲅ̣ⲓ̣ⲧⲏⲩ Gardner
6. ⲡ̇ⲧ̅ⲏ̅ ⲩ̅- : ⲡ̇ⲧ̅ⲏ̅ⲩ̅ translate “wind” (“Wind”) Bilabel/Grohann, Mößner/Nauerth
6-7. ⲩ̅ⲁⲗ̅ⲓ̅ⲭ̅ i.e. Arabic ورق waraq : understand as name Bilabel/Grohann, Moßner/Nauerth : ⲁⲗ̅ⲓ̅ⲭ̅ⲏ̅ i.e. Arabic ورق Gardner
7-8. ⲏ̅ⲁⲣ̅ⲭ̅ⲏ̅ l. ⲛ̅-ⲁⲣⲭⲏ i.e. Greek ἀρχή : ⲁⲣ̅ⲭ̅ⲏ̅ Gardner, Bilabel/Grohmann, Mößner/Nauerth : i.e. Greek ἀρχή or name ? Bilabel/Grohann, Mößner/Nauerth
10. ⲑ̅ⲩ̅ l. l. ⲑⲩ(ⲥⲓⲁ) i.e. Greek θυσία
10-11. ⲗⲓ̈ⲃⲁⲛⲱⲥ i.e. Greek λίβανος
12. ⲡⲁⲣⲁⲕⲁⲗⲓ i.e. Greek παρακαλεῖν
12-13. ⲙ̇ⲙⲁⲕ i.e. Sahidic ⲙ̅ⲙⲟ⸗ⲕ
13. ⲡϫⲁϫ i.e. Sahidic ⲡ-ϫⲱϫ : translate “bird” (“Vogel”) Mößner/Nauerth
14. ⲛⲁⲗϭⲏⲛⲓ i.e. Arabic جني ğinniyy : i.e. Greek ἀλκή translate “defence” (“Abwehr”) Bilabel/Grohmann, translate “help” (“Hilfe”) Mößner/Nauerth | ϯⲧⲉⲣⲕⲁ i.e. Sahidic ϯ-ⲧⲁⲣⲕⲟ | ⲙ̅ⲁ̅ⲕ̅ i.e. Sahidic ⲙ̅ⲙⲟ⸗ⲕ
16. ⲙ̇ⲛⲉⲕⲫⲩ̅ⲣ̅ⲓ̅ⲟ̅ⲛ̅ l. ⲙⲛ ⲛⲉⲕ-ⲫⲩ(ⲗⲁⲕⲧⲏ)ⲣⲓⲟⲛ i.e. Greek φυλακτήριον
17. ⲥ̅ⲱ̅ϯ̅ⲟⲩⲛ i.e. Greek ζῴδιον
18. ⲧⲱⲡⲟⲥ̣ i.e. Greek τόπος | ⲉⲡϣⲟⲟⲡ i.e. Sahidic ⲉⲧ⸗ⲕ̅-ϣⲟⲟⲡ : i.e. Sahidic ⲉ⸗ⲕ-ϣⲟⲟⲡ Bilabel/Grohmann
18.-19. ⲉϩⲏⲧⲟⲩ i.e. Sahidic ⲛ̅ϩⲏⲧⲟⲩ
19. ⲧⲉⲧⲉⲧ̅ⲣ̅ⲓ̅ⲁ̅ⲥ̅ l. ⲧⲉ-ⲧⲣⲓⲁⲥ ? i.e. Greek τρίας : or l. ⲙⲛ̅ⲧ-ⲧⲣⲓⲁⲥ translate “triple-fold”/”in a trinitarian way” Gardner
20. ⲛⲁ̣ⲓ alpha corrected from epsilon (?) by overwriting
21-22. ⲁⲡⲡⲱⲗⲗⲁⲅⲓⲁ i.e. Greek ἀπολογία : or i.e. Greek ἀπαλλαγή ? Gardner
22. ⳽̅⳽̅ l. (ⲇⲉⲓⲛⲁ) (ⲇⲉⲓⲛⲁ) i.e. Greek δεῖνα δεῖνα (twice)
23. ⲧ̅ⲁ̅ⲭ̅ⲏ i.e. Greek ταχύ (twice)


Our line numbering of this manuscript diverges from that in Bilabel/Grohmann; they number our ll. 9-11 as ll. 1-3, with our ll. 4-8 numbered 2-6 (overlapping with our ll. 9-11). The line numbered here as 12 corresponds to l. 7 in Bilabel/Grohmann, with the following lines numbered sequentially.
5-6. ⲙ̇ⲉ ⲧⲉⲡ̇ⲧ̅ⲏ̅ We tentatively propose to read ⲡ̇ⲧ̅ⲏ̅ as an unusual writing of the word ⲃⲏⲧⲉ “metal plate” (Crum CD 45b), but cf. P. Heid. Inv. Kopt. 683, in which ⲡ̣ⲧⲏ appears in a list of ingredients, and we interpret it as ⲡ-ⲉⲧ-ⲧⲏⲥ (with the sigma lost to haplography), with the sense “that which is dried”, although this would not seem to fit here.
9. ⲍ̅ⲱ̅ⲙ̅ⲓ̅ⲍ̅ Gardner (2022, p. 89-90) notes a possible connection to Semesilam (Northwest Semitic “Eternal Sun”), but more plausibly suggests a connection to Shemyaz/Shemhazai and Shamhurish, respectively the leaders of the fallen angels in 1 Enoch 6-10, and the leader of the djinn in Egyptian popular tradition.
14. ⲛⲁⲗϭⲏⲛⲓ As recognised by Gardner (2022, 86) and Love (2022, 702) note, this word is almost certainly the Arabic loanword جني “djinn”. We follow Gardner in understanding the meaning as “chief djinn”; Love suggests “the djinn-swallow” or “the djinn-headed”. Mößner and Nauerth suggest, based on their translation of “bird of help”, a reference to the holy spirit (Mößner/Nauerth 2015, 329).


Bilabel, Friedrich, and Adolf Grohmann. Griechische, koptische und arabische Texte zur Religion und religiösen Literatur in Ägyptens Spätzeit, Heidelberg: Verlag der Universitätsbibliothek, 1934, p. 409, no. 141.

Dosoo, Korshi, Edward O.D. Love, and Markéta Preininger. “The Coptic Magical Papyri Project: Progress Report.” Journal of Coptic Studies 24 (2022): 43–100.

Gardner, Iain. “An Archive of Coptic Handbooks and Exemplars for the Making of Amulets and the Enacting of Ritual Power from the Tenth Century (P. Heid. Inv. Kopt. 680–683 and 685–686)”. In Drawing Spirit. The Role of Images and Design in the Magical Practice of Late Antiquity, edited by Jay Johnston and Ian Gardner. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2022, 86-93.

Love, Edward O. D. ““Crum’s Chicken”: Alpak, Demonised Donkeys, and Avianised Demons among the Figures of Demotic, Greek, and Coptic Magical Texts”, in Magikon Zōon: Animal and Magic, edited by Korshi Dosoo and Jean-Charles Coulon, 2022, p. 702.

Mößner, Tamara, and Claudia Nauerth. “Koptische Text und ihre Bilder.” In Ägyptische Magie und ihre Umwelt, edited by Andrea Jördens, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2015, p. 309-310; 329-330.


EL’s transcript from published edition, preliminary translation by KD (13/9/2019); team (30/1/2023)

How to cite:
Korshi Dosoo, Edward O.D. Love & Markéta Preininger (chief editors). "KYP T229: Invocation of image and characters," Kyprianos Database of Ancient Ritual Texts and Objects, Accessed on 20/06/2024

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